System Administrator Guide : 8. Using Monitoring and Tracing Tools : Operating System Utilities
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Operating System Utilities
Many operating systems provide utilities to administer and troubleshoot. Most of the operating systems provide context sensitive help to use the tools.
Windows Operating System Utilities
You can use the following Windows operating system utilities to monitor Vector:
Windows Diagnostics
Windows Performance Monitor
Windows Event Viewer
Windows Registry Editor
Windows Task Manager
For a full description of the Windows utilities, see your Windows documentation.
Windows Diagnostics
The Windows Diagnostics program can help you determine your operating system’s configuration. This tool can be found in Control Panel, System and Security, Administrative Tools, Computer Management.
Windows Performance Monitor
Performance Monitor is a Windows graphical tool for measuring the performance of your own computer or other computers on a network. On each computer, you can view the behavior of objects such as processors, memory, cache, threads, and processes. Each of these objects has an associated set of counters that provide information on such things as device usage, queue lengths, and delays, as well as information used for throughput and internal congestion measurements.
It provides charting, alerting, and reporting capabilities that reflect current activity along with ongoing logging. You can also open log files at a later time for browsing and charting as if they were reflecting current activity. To monitor performance on Windows, see the operating system documentation.
Windows Event Viewer
Event Viewer is a tool for monitoring events in your system. You can use Event Viewer to view and manage System, Security, and Application event logs. To access the Event Viewer, right-click on the Computer icon and select Manage. The Computer Management Window is displayed. The Event Viewer is available under the System Tools.
Windows Registry Editor
This program can be used to view the system configuration and environment. For a description of how the information is presented and the capabilities of the utility, see the online help.
To start the Registry Editor
1. Open a Windows command prompt.
2. Type REGEDT32. The Registry Editor opens.
Windows Task Manager
The Task Manager enables you to monitor and control your computer and what is running on it. It shows you programs and processes that are running as well as performance. To access the Task Manager, right click an empty area in the task bar and click Start Task Manager.
Linux Operating System Utilities
You can use the following Linux operating system utilities to monitor Vector:
For a full description of the Linux options, see your Linux documentation (or online help). A detailed description of the utilities can be found in the Command Reference.
Note:  Not all of the utilities are present on every Linux system. Some are present only in a BSD or System V environment but not both.
This command provides virtual memory and cpu information on each active process submitted from your account. Here is a sample ps output:
xx06  p3   s   28:50  13  99   45886  3696   2856   xx    0.0   39.3   iidbms
xx94  p3   s    4:24   0  99    2899   720    344   xx    0.0    4.7   dmfrcp
xx09  p3   I    0.51  99  99    4488     4    184   xx    0.0    2.5   iislave
xx19  p3   I    0.57  99  99    5764    64     17   xx    0.0    2.4   iislave
xx96  p3   I    0.04  99  99    1852   696    160   xx    0.0    2.2   dmfacp
The display fields are as follows:
Process ID field
Controlling terminal
Process status
Runnability of the process: Runnable (r), Stopped (t), Disk or other short-term wait (d), Sleeping (s), or Idle (i)
Swap status: Swapped out (w) or Loaded in core (blank)
Process priority change: Reduced (n), Increased (>) or No change (blank)
Sleep time (seconds blocked)
Residency time (seconds in core)
Number of disk I/Os resulting from page references not in core
Virtual process size
Resident set size
Soft memory limit (setrlimit), else “xx”
CPU utilization (1 minute decaying average)
Memory utilization
Process name
The iostat command returns information about I/O status. It lists statistics on current I/O activity for each disk device and system CPU utilization percentages. Here is a sample iostat output:
tty cpu
tin    tout    us    ni    sy    id
  1      18    19     0     3    78 
bps   sps   msps  bps   sps   msps   bps   sps   msps   bps   sps   msps
 2    0.1   61.7   1    0.0   95.5    1    0.0   60.4    2    0.2   44.3
The tin and tout display fields show the number of characters written to and from terminal devices.
CPU information includes the % time spent in user mode (us), “niced” user mode (ni), system mode (sy), and idle (id).
The disk I/O for each disk device shows the average number of blocks transferred per second (bps), average number of seeks per second (sps), and average time per seek in ms (msps).
The vmstat (Virtual Memory Statistics) command returns virtual memory status information, including process states and paging activity. Here is a sample vmstat output:
procs      memory           page     disk      faults    cpu
r b w avm  fre di  re rd pi po de z0 z1 z2 z3 in sy cs us sy id
1 0 0 2536 456 24  2  1  4  0  0  1  1  0  1 24 475 23  4  6 91
0 0 0 2748 356 24  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  3 26 323 29  1  5 95
0 0 0 1044 344 24  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 16 216 18  0  3 97
0 0 0 2288 344 24  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 19 334 27  1  4 95
1 0 0 2372 332 24  0  0  4  0  0  0  0  0  1 28 552 40  1  6 93
The procs columns define the process states: in run queue (r), blocked for resources (b), and runnable or short sleeper (w).
The memory columns show virtual and real memory status: avm is active virtual pages (belonging to processes active in approximately the last 20 seconds), fre is size of the free list, and di is the number of dirty pages.
The page columns show page faults and paging activity. These are expressed in units per second, averaged over 5 seconds: re are page reclaims, rd are page reclaims from the dirty list, and pi, po are pages paged in/out. The de field is anticipated short-term memory shortfall.
The disk columns list disk activity, showing the device name and operations per second.